Таблица грамматических времен в английском языке

Грамматические времена в английском языке, а именно их формирование и правила использования, часто доставляют нам хлопот. Существует много тонкостей в значении, оттенках и выборе того или иного времени. Именно поэтому предлагаем вам сравнительную таблицу основных грамматических времен с правилами и примерами их применения в речи. 

Tense

+

-

?

Present simple

 

(регулярные действия)

I work

You work

They work

We work

              

He works

She works

It works

Do not (don’t)

Does not (doesn’t)

 

I, You, They, We don’t work

 

He, She, It doesn’t work

Do? Does?

 

Do I, You, They, We work?

 

Does He, She, It work?

Present continuous

 

(действия, происходящие сейчас, в момент говорения;

ИЛИ

Запланированные действия в будущем)

I am

You are

They are

We are                  working

He is

She is

It is

I am not

You are not

They are not

We are not                        working

He is not

She is not

It is not

Am I

Are you

Are they

Are we                  working?

Is he                             

Is she

Is it

Past simple

 

(завершенное неповторяющееся действие в прошлом. ВАЖНЫ дата или время, когда оно происходило)

Отвечает на вопрос Что сделал?

 

 

-ed / irregular verb

 

I worked

You worked

They worked

We worked

He worked

She worked

It worked

Did not (didn’t)

 

I didn’t work

You didn’t work

They didn’t work

We didn’t work

He didn’t work

She didn’t work

It didn’t work

Did?

 

                I

                You

Did         they          work?

                We

                He

                She

                It

Past continuous

(длительное действие в прошедшем)

Отвечает на вопрос Что делал?

Was / were + -ing

 

I was

You were

They were

We were     working

He was

She was

It  was

Was not / were not + -ing

 

I was not

You were not

They were not

We were not                    working

He was not

She was not

It  was not

Was/were SUBJECT –ing

 

Was I

Were you

Were they

Were we                         working?

Was he

Was she

Was it

Be going to

 

(собираться что-то делать. Используется в качестве будущего времени для запланированных действий)

 

I am

You are

They are

We are           going to work

He is

She is

It is

 

I am not

You are not

They are not

We are not               going to work

He is not

She is not

It is not

 

Am I

Are you

Are they

Are we                  going to work?

Is he                             

Is she

Is it

Future Simple

 

(простое будущее время. Незапланированное, спонтанное действие в будущем. Прогнозы, предсказания)

 

 

 

 

 

Will + V

 

I will

You will

They will

We will         work

She will

He will

It will

Will not (Won’t)

 

I won’t

You won’t

They won’t

We won’t           work

She won’t

He won’t

It won’t

Will SUBJECT?

 

Will I

Will you

Will they

Will we                    work?

Will she

Will he

Will it

Present perfect

 

(настоящее совершенное время. действие, которое завершилось только что или результат действия важен в настоящем времени)

Have / has + V-ed (III form)

 

I have

You have

We have

They have             finished

She has

He has

It has

Have / has not + V –ed (III form)

 

I have not

You have not

They have not

We have not                      finished

She has not

He has not

It has not

Have / has SUBJECT +V

 

Have I

Have you

Have they                           

Have we                               finished?

Has she

Has he

Has it

Past perfect

(прошедшее совершенное время. Показывает действие, которое произошло в прошлом раньше других действий в прошлом:

Когда мы пришли на вечеринку, он уже открыл подарки (он это сделал раньше, чем мы пришли.)

 

Had + V-ed (III form)

 

I had

You had

We have

They had               finished

She had

He had

It had

Had not + V –ed (III form)

 

I had not

You had not

They had not

We had not                        finished

She had not

He had not

It had not

Had SUBJECT +V

 

Had I

Had you

Had they                             

Had we                                 finished?

Had she

Had he

Had it

 

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