Vowels and consonants combinations in English

In the previous topic, we considered 4 types of reading vowels, which did not seem to us difficult at all, so we can safely go on.

Unfortunately, letters do not always stand alone in an open or closed syllable. Very often they are combined in letter combinations, which are read quite differently. This applies to both vowels and consonants.

Look at this table of vowels with examples of their reading:

And now try to read these words yourself using all the reading rules:

cope, smoke, rose, nose, spine, sly, cry, vine, maze, home

spin, not, doll, hop, hot, bank, rank, spin, up, us, bus, bun, cut, fun, vet

girl, sir, burn, turn, word, born, torn, bird, form, serf, herb

fire, bare, mire, stare, tire, sere, mere, store, core, more, care.

tea, meet, eat, read, speak, clean, please bread, head, breakfast, healthy

away, play, say, may, today, grey, they


Consonant sounds and their combinations

To some extent, consonant sounds are simpler, because each of them is read separately, as in the alphabet. However, they are surrounded by other letters in words too and this leaves its mark on them.

Pay attention to the table below. Here are the main variants of letter combinations that can be met in English words and examples of their reading:


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