13 August 2019
An adverb is a part of speech that is used to describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs and even whole sentences. There are several types of them; depending on what goals they serve in the sentence, there are adverbs of manner (how), place (where), time (when), frequency (how often), the adverb of the degree (to what extent), etc.
She walks slowly. (How does she walk? Slowly - is an adverb of manner)
Your friend is there. (Where is the friend? There - is an adverb of a place)
I am coming tomorrow. (When? Tomorrow - is an adverb of time)
We often go to the cinema. (How often? Often - is an adverb of frequency of action
You are very kind. (How much? Very - degree adverb)
Having worked out the meaning and functions of adverbs, let's now consider how this part of speech is formed.
Serious - seriously
Gentle - gently
Happy - happily
Awful - awfully
Dramatic - dramatically, BUT public - publicly
However, as always, there is a number of exceptions. The following words, although ending in -ly, are adjectives: elderly, cowardly, friendly, likely, deadly, lively, lonely, silly, ugly, lovely.
We have very friendly neighbours.
To use them in the meaning of adverbs, we add the words way / manner to them:
They talked to us in a friendly manner / way.
There are also adverbs whose forms coincide with adjectives: hard, fast, high, low, deep, early, late, long, near, straight, right, wrong. And also hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly.
I am afraid of deep water. (adjective)
Don’t go deep into the sea! (adverb)
The following adverbs have two forms, but each of them is used with a different meaning:
They are deeply in love with each other. ( = very)
You can speak freely, don’t worry. ( = without any restrictions)
He is a highly respected manager. ( = very much)
I have been there lately. ( = recently)
I am mostly interested in dramas. ( = mainly)
I nearly changed my mind. ( = almost)
She is prettily dressed today, isn’t she? ( = nicely)
They hardly speak with each other. ( = almost not)
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